Git Basic Tutorial

Learn git the right way

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Git is software for tracking changes in any set of files, usually used for coordinating work among programmers collaboratively developing source code during software development. Its goals include speed, data integrity, and support for distributed, non-linear workflows. [1]

I have been using Git since my college projects and have helped me to organize my projects and resolve a lot of bugs. Through this blog, I will try to explain the basic concept of git that has helped me.


Git Setup


To install in Linux:

$ sudo apt install git

To install in Windows:

Download the Windows Git Intaller

To install in Mac:

Download the Mac Git Intaller

Verify Git Installation


$ git --version


git version <version_name>

Configure your Git

Before using git you need to configure it properly.

$ git config --global "Harsh Mittal"
$ git config --global ""

Basic Commands

These are some of the most common git commands used.

Initialize Git

To initialize git in a folder:

git init

Add Origin

Origin is nothing but link to external git repository where your code is maintained.

Use the following command to add origin to existing git folder:

git remote add origin <link.git>

## Example:
git remote add origin

Ream more: Playing with Origins


Cloning is nothing but downloading a copy of the project from any external git repository.

git clone

Add Files

Add Files which will later be committed:

git add <file_name>

       You can also add everything by using:

git add .
# or
git add --all

Commit changes

git commit -m "<Commit Message>"

       To commit changes with description:

git commit

       This will open up a text editor (customizable via git config) asking for a commit log message, along with a list of what’s being committed:

# Please enter the commit message for your changes. Lines starting
# with '#' will be ignored, and an empty message aborts the commit.
# On branch main
# Changes to be committed:
# (use "git reset HEAD ..." to unstage)

Push Changes

Push Commits to Repository:

git push origin <branch_name>

## Example
git push origin master

New Branch

Create new branch in git

git branch dev && git checkout dev
## OR
git checkout -b dev

Change Branch

git checkout <branch_name>

## Example
git checkout dev

Playing with Origins

In Git, “origin” is a shorthand name for the remote repository that a project was originally cloned from. More precisely, it is used instead of that original repository’s URL - and thereby makes referencing much easier.

Add Multiple Origins

git remote add <origin_name> <repo_link>

## Example
git remote add origin
git remote add diff_origin

Change Existing Git origin URL

git remote set-url origin <new_link>

Git Submodules

Submodules are used when you want to use any other library within your project. It is used in such cases where you want to use both of them while keeping them separate.

Add Submodule

git submodule add <Repo_Link>

## Example
git submodule add

Update All Submodule

       This is used when you have cloned a project and you want to update all the submodules as well.

git submodule update --init --recursive

Review Pull Request

Let’s say you are working on a really big project with multiple developers. One of the developers creates a PR and you have to review it. To run the code you need to have it in your system and since it is not yet merged you cannot directly access it using a simple git pull.

The way that I prefer is using git fetch and checkout the pull request in headless mode so that unnecessary local branches are not created.

git fetch upstream pull/<ID>/head && git checkout FETCH_HEAD

Here ID is the PR ID that you can see on the pull request page.


git stash saves all the changes you have made temporarily so that you can do some other work and come back to those changes and apply it.

$ git status
On branch main
Changes to be committed:

    new file:

Changes not staged for commit:


$ git stash

Saved working directory and index state WIP on main: 7003d57 our new homepage
HEAD is now at 7003d57 our new homepage

$ git status
On branch main
nothing to commit, working tree clean

Bring back the stash:

git stash pop
git stash apply